By Sing H. Lin, Ph.D., E-Mail: SINGHLIN@GMAIL.COM

Original appeared on January 3, 2007, Latest Revision on April 15, 2014

Abstract

My 21 Year Work: For about 21 years since my tour of The Mystery Spot in Santa Cruz, California in
1993, of Oregon Vortex in Gold Hill, Oregon in 2004 and of the Magnetic Hill in eastern Canada in 2005, I have
been thinking about and investigating on the strange gravity phenomena on hundreds of gravity hills all over the
world and at several Mystery Spots.

Gravity Hills: Many people have observed and reported a strange gravity phenomenon on strange slopes
of paved roads at hundreds of locations all over the world. People pour water on such strange slope and water
flows uphill. People put plastic water bottle on such strange slope and the plastic water bottle with water rolls
uphill. Vehicles with transmission shifted to neutral gear and brake released simply roll uphill on such strange
slopes.

Mystery Spots: At Oregon Vortex and several other similar Mystery Spots, a well known mystery is the
significant change of relative heights of two persons when they switch their standing positions inside the
mystery spot zone. The tour guide in such mystery spot zone usually uses a Carpenter Level with liquid bubble
to show many watching tourists that the ground is level in such demonstration of change of relative heights.

Illusion Theory: Many people simply dismiss such strange gravity phenomena on those gravity hills and in
those Mystery Spots as illusion. Some people have also done some tests and measurements on some of
those gravity hills and claimed that they have proved that it is an illusion. However, my careful examinations of
these tests, measurements and claims indicate that they are NOT valid proofs because of serious defects in
such tests and measurements as explained in this presentation.

I present four independent sets of evidences that cast serious doubt on the validity of illusion theory. These
evidences indicate that the strange gravity phenomena on these gravity hills and mystery spots may be real
and not due to illusion.

Mysteries in Astronomy: Many astronomers and scientists all over the world have been struggling with
the strange and puzzling phenomena of dark energy and dark flow based on astronomical observations. These
astronomical observations on the inter-galactic scale and galactic scale found (a) the accelerated expansion of
universe caused by an unknown dark energy and (b) strange huge flow of hundreds of galaxy clusters in
certain direction. These strange phenomena imply the existence of huge amount of unknown dark energy in the
universe, but our scientific knowledge still does not understand that "dark side of the universe" well yet.

My Theory: I have collected some key characteristics of hundreds of gravity hills, of Oregon Vortex and of
several other similar mystery spots on earth surface. My analysis of such information indicates that (1) Our
familiar regular matters on earth CANNOT produce the strange gravity phenomena on those gravity hills, and in
those mystery spots and (2) The abnormal gravity on those gravity hills and in those mystery spots originate
from very compact dark matters with extreme high mass density at least 1,000 times greater than that of
regular average material on earth.

By applying Theory of Parallel Universes, String theory and M-Theory on (1) and (2) above, I found that the
strange gravity phenomena on those gravity hills and in those mystery spots are caused by the inter-universe
coupling gravity originating from dark matters that exist on parallel universes. Since those dark matters are on
parallel universes, we cannot see and cannot touch those dark matters, but we can feel the effects of
inter-universe coupling gravity from those dark matters.

With such breakthrough, I found that the dark energy that is causing the acceleration of expansion of our
universe can also be explained by the inter-universe coupling gravity from dark matters on other parallel
universes surrounding our universe. From the viewpoint of my theory, Dark Energy is inter-universe coupling
gravity.

Thus, I found that all four major mysteries at the cutting edge of modern science, namely:

(a) Strange gravity phenomenon on hundred of gravity hills on earth surface,
(b) Gravity mysteries at Oregon Vortex and at several other similar mystery spots on earth surface,
(c) Dark energy causing accelerated expansion of our universe, and
(d) Dark Flow of hundreds of galaxy clusters,

can all be explained by the same plain old gravity, that is the inter-universe coupling gravity originating from
dark matters on other parallel universes.

Notice that the dark matters in my theory are deduced from the strange gravity phenomena on hundreds of
gravity hills and several known mystery spots on earth surface. The dark matters in my theory are NOT
deduced from astronomical observations of galactic rotation curve problem or the dynamic of galaxies in
galaxy cluster. The dark matters in my theory are independent of the controversy on galactic rotation curve
problem in astronomical observations.

********************************************
For about 21 years since my tour of The Mystery Spot in Santa Cruz, California, USA in 1993, of Oregon
Vortex in Gold Hill, Oregon, USA in 2004 and of the Magnetic Hill in eastern Canada in 2005, I have been
thinking about and investigating on the issue of whether such strange gravity hill effects and gravity mysteries
are real or illusion and searching for a possible scientific explanation for such strange gravity phenomena and
mysteries. I started presenting this web page on January 3, 2007 soon after my Travelogue website (
WWW.SHLTRIP.COM ) was established in December 2006. I have been revising and updating this web page
from time to time as I gain more insight and relevant information since 2005 in my search for a scientific
explanation for the strange gravity phenomena on hundred of gravity hills and at several known mystery spots.
Most recent update of this web page was on April 14, 2014. As of April 15, 2014, this web page has been
accessed 8,762 times by my friends and strangers all over world.

**********************************************
PowerPoint Presentations:

The highlights of this lengthy web page are summarized in the following two PowerPoint Presentations (PPP). I
have presented this set of PPPs in the Quarterly Meeting of the Distinguished Citizen Society International -
Eastern USA Chapter (DCSIE) on June 8, 2013 and in the Meeting of CACA 40-Plus Club on December 31,
2013, both in New Jersey, USA.

Click the following two links to see the two PowerPoint Presentations.









*********************************************
Table of Contents

1. Strange Gravity Phenomenon at Magnetic Hill in Eastern Canada

1.1 First Set of Evidences Against Illusion Theory for Gravity Hills

1.2. Location and Direction:

1.3. Not All Gravity Hills Are Equal

2. Gravity Hills on Coastal Highways:

2.1.  Example One of Coastal Gravity Hills

2.2. More Examples of Known Coastal Gravity Hills

2.3. Second Set of Evidences Against Illusion Theory for Gravity Hills

3. Detection of Abnormal Gravity at Mystery Spot in Michigan by Three Surveyors

3.1. Third Set of Evidence Against Illusion Theory for Gravity Hills

4. Detection of Abnormal Gravity by Gravitational Time Dilation

4.1. Fourth Set of Evidence Against Illusion Theory

5. Many Other Locations with Similar Strange Gravity Phenomenon

5.1. Strange Slope in Northeastern China

5.2. More Existing Known Gravity Hills

5.3. More Potential Locations

5.4. Cluster of Gravity Hills

6. Is It Magnetic Force or Electric Force?

7. How About Doing Some Tests and Measurements?

7.1. Problems of Using Traditional Land Survey Method on Gravity Hills

7.1.1. Problems of Spirit/Level Bubble and Plumb Line on Gravity Hills

7.2. Contradictory Results from GPS Measurements

7.3. Accuracy of Consumer-Grade Single GPS Receiver for Elevation Measurements

7.4. Topographic Map

7.5. Status of Scientific Proof of Illusion

8. Need for Precision Scientific Measurements on Gravity Hills and Mystery Spots

9. Mounting Evidences for Multiverse

9.1. List of Six Evidences of Multiverse

9.2. Some Key Characteristics of Parallel Universes

10. My Evolving Dark Matter Theory on Gravity Hills and Mystery Spots at the Cutting Edge of Science

11. Dark Energy is Inter-Universe Coupling Gravity

12. Concluding Remark

13. Technical Background of the Author of This Web Page

Appendix A - Many Reports of Gravity Hills at many locations all over the world at the following
YouTube websites:

Appendix B - Some Chinese websites listed in the following indicate that similar Gravity Hills have also
been observed at several other locations in China.

**************************************************************************

1. Strange Gravity Phenomenon at Magnetic Hill in Eastern Canada

In July 2005 on our way to tour New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in eastern Canada, we
visited Magnetic Hill near the City of Moncton in the Province of New Brunswick. Please take a look at
the following 8 pictures that I took at the Magnetic Hill.
Picture 1: At this location, visitors can drive their cars to the lowest point (bottom of the hill marked by a
white post on the road side) in the middle of this section of the road as shown in the following second picture.
Picture 2: At the lowest point in the middle of this section of the road, the visitor stops the car, shifts the
transmission of the car to the neutral position and releases the brake. (Some visitors even turn off the engine
entirely at this point.) Then the car will start rolling up the hill (slope of the road) on its own and will keep on
going up the hill as shown in the following two pictures.
It is worthwhile to enjoy such strange experience if you have an opportunity to travel near that area in the
future for sightseeing. There are several tourist attractions in that area near beautiful Bay of Fundy such as
Hopewell Rocks to see world's highest tide, Mary's Point and Johnson's Mills to see huge number of
migratory shore birds feeding on mud flats of Bay of Fundy, beautiful Fundy National Park, whale watching in
Bay of Fundy, Reversing Falls at Saint John, beautiful Cape Brenton Highlands National Park, etc. as
described in details in my Travelogue web page at:

http://
www.shltrip.com/Nova_Scotia_and_New_Brunswick.html

Due to this strange phenomenon on this section of the road, a parallel new road (Mountain Road) was
constructed to bypass this section of the road so that visitors can try it to experience the strange phenomenon
on this section of the road without worrying about running into regular vehicular traffic on the road.

When I was on the waiting line described above in July 2005, an old guy told me that this was his second time
to visit Magnetic Hill. The first time was about 50 years ago when he was a teenager. He said that 50 years
ago, they did not use cars but used bicycles. He sat on the bicycle and did not pedal the bicycle, but the
bicycle just rolled up the hill on its own.

The brochure entitled “The Story of Moncton’s Mysterious Magnetic Hill” for visitors at Magnetic Hill in
Moncton indicates that the local farmers had observed this recurring strange phenomenon on their horse
wagons in the early 1800’s. When they were going downhill on this section of the road, the horse seemed to
be using substantial effort to pull the wagon to go downhill. But when they were going uphill, the wagon would
run up on the heels of startled horse. There were also stories of barrels and bales of dry goods rolling
mysteriously “uphill”.

Observers also note that water in the roadside drainage ditches also seemingly runs “uphill.” This rules out
magnetic as the force for this strange phenomenon.

1.2. Location and Direction:

The Magnetic Hill is at northwest part of the city of Moncton in the Province of New Brunswick. Moncton is in
eastern Canada, near northeast tip of Bay of Fundy, on Transcanada Highway 2, about 1,036 Km east of
Montreal and 273 Km northwest of Halifax.

Directions: Take exit 450 of the Transcanada Highway (i.e. Highway #2) for Route 126 (i.e., Mountain Road)
and follow the signs of Magnetic Hill. Phone: 506-853-3516.

Map: Click here to see Google Map showing location of Magnetic Hill near Moncton


1.3. Not All Gravity Hills Are Equal

Over the last few years, I have visited 6 gravity hills: one in eastern Canada, three in Pennsylvania, USA and
two in southwest New Jersey, USA. Out of these 6 gravity hills, the Magnetic Hill at Moncton in eastern
Canada is most impressive because the slope of the this gravity hill is steepest among these 6 gravity hills
that I have visited. For visitors, it is most exciting and thrilling to sit inside a vehicle rolling up this steep slope.
The visual perception of the steep slope by all visitors are very clear and unambiguous on this particular
gravity hill at Moncton. The slope on this gravity hill near Moncton is so steep that the bottom of this slope is
NOT visible from the large area of vehicle waiting area on the top of this gravity hill as shown on Pictures 7
and 8 above.

On the other hand, the slopes on some other gravity hills are very small and mild. The visual perception of the
uphill slope may be somewhat ambiguous and unclear depending on people. Some visitors may debate
whether what they see is an uphill slope or not.

Therefore, if you want to see and experience the thrill of a good and powerful gravity hill with a strong feeling,
it is highly recommended that you go to see the Magnetic Hill at Moncton, in the Province of New Brunswick in
eastern Canada.

On the other hand, if you go to see a feeble gravity hill with a mild slope as a first experience, you probably
will be disappointed with an ambiguous feeling. Such ambiguous and feeble feeling may be one of the
contributing factors for so many people to believe that it is just an illusion.

A couple who had experience of visiting both Magnetic Hill in Moncton, Canada and Electric Brae in Scotland
indicated that Magnetic Hill in Moncton is more impressive as described in the following website:

http://
johnmacnab.hubpages.com/hub/Magnetic-Hill

There is a very brief report of a gravity hill with a steep slope of 15 degrees in a desert region in Gansu
province (甘肅省甘南縣祈豐區的戈壁灘上) in northwest China. But I cannot find pictures, or video or other
more detailed information on this very special steep gravity hill. I hope that somebody else can help to get
some good pictures, videos and more detailed information on this steep gravity hill in China.

2. Gravity Hills on Coastal Highways:

Several known gravity hills are on coastal highways where the vast horizontal line of the nearby ocean is
readily visible as the horizontal reference to all visitors of the coastal gravity hills. On such coastal gravity hills,
one would think that human perception of uphill slope should be correct because the reference horizontal line
is readily visible in the nearby ocean. Yet the Illusion Theory still claims that human perceptions of the top and
the bottom of such coastal gravity hills are still "wrong". The Illusion Theory for such coastal gravity hills is
usually backed up by their land survey measurements that indicate that the human perceived bottom is higher
than the human perceived top of such coastal gravity hill. It is likely that the level bubble and the plumb line
used in such land survey measurements are affected by the abnormal gravity of the unknown source on such
gravity hills such that the measurement results are wrong as illustrated on Figures 1 and 2 in Section 5.

2.1.  Example One of Coastal Gravity Hills

One example of such coastal gravity hills is known as Electric Brae on coastal road A719 in Ayrshire,
Scotland as described in the following Wikipedia website with 2 pictures:

http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_Brae

Two better pictures of this coastal gravity hill showing the visible nearby ocean and its horizontal line can be
seen by clicking the following links:

Picture A: Click here to see a picture of the coastal gravity hill Electric Brae near the ocean

Picture B: Click here to see a picture of the coastal gravity hill, Electric Brae, near the ocean

Several pictures on the following website also provide some nice views of the blue ocean near the coastal
road A719 near the area of the well known gravity hill, Electric Brae:

http://
bikeaboot.lawrab.com/2010/08/linwood-to-electric-brae.html


Three people on bicycles rolling up this coastal gravity hill on the coastal road 719 without peddling can be
seen at the following YouTube website:

http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=MRuEUSiMalk

Again, this movie shows that the nearby ocean and its horizontal line are readily visible by everybody on this
coastal gravity hill on the coastal road A719.

More movie clips showing vehicles rolling up this coastal gravity hill near the ocean can be seen at the
following YouTube websites:

http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=AofTlPpCIxQ

Again, this movie clip and the following four movie clips all show that the nearby ocean and its horizontal line
are readily visible by everybody on this coastal gravity hill on the coastal road A719.

http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=DBSRLtLBvpA&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JDhLTozHXlI&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DsxrAGGcauk&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5w8dMeysxaY&feature=related

During the Second World War, even General Dwight D Eisenhower, who had a flat nearby at Culzean Castle,
often brought visitors here to see and to experience this strange gravity phenomenon on Electric Brae.

2.2. More Examples of Known Coastal Gravity Hills

The second example of coastal gravity hill is known as Magnetic Hill, located on the coastal road A27
between Ballabeg and the Round Table crossroads, at Ronague near Colby on Isle of Man in the Irish Sea in
Great Britain. On such coastal gravity hill, visitors can see the reference horizontal line on the nearby ocean
as shown in the following YouTube videos:

http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=UbUmOxytkZo

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9tNyPgLIUh4

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_Ewl43YO5k&feature=related

In addition to these two examples of gravity hills on coastal roads where the reference horizontal line on the
nearby ocean is readily visible from these coastal gravity hills, there are more reported gravity hills on coastal
roads such as:

Known as Anti-Gravity Point on a coastal road at a place called Mirbat which is about 40 km east of coastal
City of Salalah in southern part of Oman (on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula), and

A gravity hill in Cascais, on a coastal road N247 on a hill near Malveira da Serra and Guincho Beach, West of
Lisbon, Portugal.

2.3. Second Set of Evidences Against Illusion Theory for Gravity Hills

These movies and pictures on coastal gravity hills show that the vast horizontal line of the nearby ocean is
readily visible as the horizontal reference to all visitors to the Electric Brae and other coastal gravity hills. On
such coastal gravity hills, one would think that human perception of uphill slope should be correct because the
reference horizontal line is readily visible in the nearby ocean. Yet the land survey measurements in such area
show that human perceived top of the gravity hill is lower than the human perceived bottom of the gravity hill.
It seems to me that the land survey measurement results are wrong because of the influence of the abnormal
gravity (on these gravity hills) on the critical level bubble and the plumb line used in such land survey
instruments as illustrated in Figures 1 and 2 in Section 5 and explained in Sections 5 and 10.

Several possible scientific methods of precision measurements that may be carried out on gravity hills to
resolve this serious issue of possible defects in existing previous measurements are described in my second
web page entitled "Need for Precision Scientific Measurements on Gravity Hills" at:

http://www.shltrip.com/Need_For_Precision_Measurements.html

3. Detection of Abnormal Gravity at Mystery Spot in Michigan by Three Surveyors

In early 1950s’, three surveyors discovered the Mystery Spot at 150 Martin Lake Road, St. Ignace, Michigan,
USA. They stumbled across an area of land where their surveying equipment did not seem to work properly.
No matter how many times they tried to level their tripod, through the use of a plum-bob or bubble level, the
plum-bob would always be drawn far to the east, even as the bubble level was reading level as stated on the
website of this Mystery Spot in Michigan at:

http://
www.mysteryspotstignace.com/

The gravity in that particular area is so abnormal that their land survey instrument could not function properly.

It is highly desirable that suitable experienced land surveyors go to this Mystery Spot in Michigan again to
repeat such experiment to make sure that the strange behavior of land survey instrument at this special
location is repeatable and is a reliable method to detect strong abnormal gravity in such special location.

3.1. Third Set of Evidence Against Illusion Theory for Gravity Hills

The illusion theory asserts that the gravity at those gravity hills is normal and that the strange phenomenon on
gravity hills is due entirely to the illusion in human perception. However, the detection of abnormal gravity by
land survey instrument at this Mystery Spot in Michigan indicates that the strange gravity phenomena in this
Mystery Spot are most likely caused by the detected strong abnormal gravity and are not caused by illusion in
human perception.  Since such abnormal gravity has been detected in this Mystery Spot in Michigan, it is likely
that similar abnormal gravity also exists in other similar Mystery Spots and in hundreds of gravity hills all over
the world. Such detected abnormal gravity is the third evidence against illusion theory for gravity hills.

4. Detection of Abnormal Gravity by Gravitational Time Dilation

Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity predicts that the closer the clock is to the source of strong gravitation,
the more slowly time passes. In other words, clocks which are far from massive bodies (or at higher
gravitational potentials) run faster, and clocks close to massive bodies (or at lower gravitational potentials) run
slower. This gravitational time dilation has been verified and demonstrated experimentally many times as
described in the following Wikipedia website:

http:/
/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_time_dilation

As an example, this gravitational time dilation effect is significant enough in the design of GPS (Global Position
System). The GPS satellites are orbiting at an altitude of approximately 20,200 km (12,600 mi) where the
earth gravity is weaker than that on earth surface. Calculations using general relativity determined that the
clocks on GPS satellites would be seen by Earth's observers to run 38 microseconds faster per day, and this
effect was corrected for in the design of GPS so that the GPS receiver on earth surface can determine its
position accurately based on the timing information of the GPS signals received from GPS satellites as
described in the following Wikipedia website.

http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System

Nick Nelson has been doing research on gravity mysteries of Oregon Vortex for about 30 years. He worked in
Oregon Vortex for two years in 1999 and 2000. He also visited several other mystery spots and has
substantial experience and knowledge on various gravity mysteries in these mystery spots. Based on the
concept of gravitational time dilation from Theory of General Relativity, Nick Nelson, with help from the
management at the Oregon Vortex, performed an important experiment in the 1999 and 2000 involving four
identical digital watches to measure the gravitational time dilation inside and outside of Oregon Vortex. The
results, after 90 days of measurement, indicated that time in the Oregon Vortex run a quarter of a second a
day slower inside than outside as described in Section 6.3 entitled "Time anomalies" and in the Second Part
of the Proposal in the following website of Reference A:

Reference A:
http://www.vectorpub.com/Drasticchange%203-27-05.htm

Those same sections also mentioned that Doug Vogt, Nick Nelson and Dr. Nikolay Barashkov performed
similar important measurements inside and outside the Vortex at Confusion Hill at Piercy in northern California,
Magnetic Hill in  Penngrove, California and Mystery Spot in Santa Cruz, California in 1996 to 2002 time frame.
These measurements all found similar and significant gravitational time dilation in such mystery spots.

That same Reference A also mentioned that similar gravitational time dilations have also been observed in
several locations in Russia. Some Russian scientists have been investigating and doing research on such
strange places in Russia with such gravitational time dilation.

In southwestern China in the mountainous area of Yunnan and Tibet, there is a very special valley known as
Shangri La (
香格里拉) as described in the 1933 novel "Lost Horizon" written by British author James Hilton.
That book was also turned into a movie, also called Lost Horizon, in 1937 by director Frank Capra. According
to this novel, a key feature of Shangri La is that people living in Shangri La age much slower than people living
outside of Shangri La. (However, the novel and the movie might have dramatized and exaggerated the effects
of gravitational time dilation.) The ancient Tibetan scriptures indicate the existence of seven such special
places according to the following Wikipedia website:

http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shangri-La

May be it is also worthwhile for Chinese scientists to seek out such special location(s) including the well
known Strange Slope (
怪坡) near ShenYang (沈阳) plus many other similar Strange Slopes and do the clock
speed measurements to see if gravitational time dilation as predicted by Einstein's General Theory of
Relativity indeed exists in such special locations in China.  

4.1. Fourth Set of Evidence Against Illusion Theory

Such measured results of significant time dilation in Oregon Vortex in Oregon, Confusion Hill in northern
California, Magnetic Hill in  Penngrove, California and Mystery Spot in Santa Cruz, California are strong proof
that the gravity in these mystery spots is significantly abnormal based on Einstein’s Theory of General
Relativity. This is an important evidence against Illusion Theory because Illusion Theory asserts that the
gravity in all those gravity hills and mystery spots is normal and all the observed strange gravity phenomena
are due entirely to illusion in human perception.

With such detected strong abnormal gravity in these mystery spots described in Sections 3 and 4, I believe  
that the strange gravity phenomena and mysteries in these Mystery Spots and gravity hills are caused by
such abnormal gravity and are not due to illusion in human perception.

Therefore, I do not believe in the illusion theory for gravity hills and for mystery spots because of these four
independent sets of evidences described in Sections 1.1, 2.1, 3.1 and 4.1

5. Many Other Locations with Similar Strange Gravity Phenomenon

5.1. Strange Slope in Northeastern China

Another location with similar strange phenomenon is known as the Strange Slope (怪坡), which is near
Qingshuitaizhen (
清水台镇) about 35 km northeast from the downtown of ShenYang (沈阳), the capital of
Liaoning Province in northeast China. (
位於遼寧省瀋陽市新城子區清水台鎮周家村東北方的寒坡嶺.)

Map: Click here to see Google Map showing location of this Strange Slope in northeast China

More information and photos on this Strange Slope are available at the following websites:

http://
english.cri.cn/4406/2008/01/08/1122@311974.htm

http://www.cjfoy.com/english/u4/syb04.asp

http://www.huaxia.com/lnsy/liaon_gdfq33.htm  

There are four lanes on this strange slope. Two lanes are for vehicles to go up and down the strange slope.
The other two lanes are for people to ride bicycles to go up and down the strange slope. A friend of mine,
Peter Lu,  who visited this strange slope said that when he was going down the strange slope on a bicycle, he
had to peddle pretty hard. But when he was going up the strange slope, he did not have to peddle at all. The
bicycle just rolled up the strange slope.

5.2. More Existing Known Gravity Hills

There are hundreds of other places in the world that also have such strange gravity phenomenon. There are
names like gravity hill, antigravity hill, Confusion Hill, magnetic hill, magic hill, Mystery Hill, Magnetic Spot,
Electric Brae, spook hill, strange slope, etc. being used for such strange places. Please see the descriptions
and the long list at the following websites:

http://www.newscientist.com/backpage.ns?id=lw118

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity_hill

http://www.research.umbc.edu/~frizzell/gravhills.html

www.newscientist.com/backpage.ns?id=lw118

In addition to shifting the transmission to neutral position, some people even turn off the engine of the car
entirely, but the car still rolls up such strange slopes on its own.

There are also many movie-clip reports of such strange slopes at many places all over the world as shown at
many YouTube websites listed in Appendix A.

Some Chinese websites listed in Appendix B indicate that similar strange slopes have also been observed at
several other locations in China.

5.3. More Potential Locations

The hundreds of known locations of strange slopes in Sections 1, 2, and 5.2. are all on the existing paved
roads where cars roll up the hills on their own and startled the drivers. But very large areas of the earth
surface are still wilderness, forests, farm fields, desert or golf courses where there are no paved roads. If
there are strange slopes in such wilderness or desert areas, we probably still do not know about them
because there are no paved roads for the cars to roll up the hill.

Furthermore, if the direction of the roadway and the slope are not aligned with the direction of the strange
horizontal gravity force, the horizontal gravity force is not strong enough to pull vehicles to move sideway.
Then nobody will notice the possible existence of a horizontal gravity force in such locations.

Some of my friends are experienced golf players. These friends told me that sometime golf players cannot
rely on their visual perception of the slope of a golf course to predict accurately which way the golf ball will
roll. Sometime the golf balls just roll in a very strange and unexpected way. It may be possible that the gravity
hill effect may exist on some parts of some golf courses, but people do not recognize it as gravity hill effect
because there is no paved road there for vehicles in neutral gear to roll uphill.

In many developing countries, as more new highways are constructed and paved, more gravity hills are being
discovered on such paved new roads. Therefore, the total number of locations on the earth surface with such
horizontal gravity force from unknown source may be much more than those known hundreds of locations
described in Section 5.2.

5.4. Cluster of Gravity Hills

There are two nearby gravity hills on the same road (Gravity Hill Road) near New Paris in Pennsylvania, USA.
These two gravity hills on the same road are separated by only 0.3 miles. There are also two nearby gravity
hills on the same road (Pleasant Valley Road) near Titusville and Hopewell in New Jersey, USA. These two
gravity hills on the same road are separated by only about 2 miles.

As of August 2011, I have visited only four different locations of gravity hills and two out of the four locations
have such cluster of  multiple nearby gravity hills. If I visit more locations in the future, I may find more clusters
of gravity hills. This means that gravity hill is often not alone, but may have one or more small areas with
gravity hill effect not too far from the known gravity hill. In other words, there may be often a cluster of nearby
gravity hills, but we may not know the existence of these additional nearby gravity hills  because (1) there is
no paved road on those additional nearby gravity hills  or (2) the direction of the road is not aligned with the
direction of the gravity force of the additional gravity hills, such that vehicles cannot roll uphill on such
additional gravity hills. These additional gravity hills that we do not know about may not be on the same road
as the known gravity hill in that area of cluster of gravity hills.

The existence of such cluster of multiple nearby gravity hills has important implication on selection of suitable
multiple sites for the proper procedure for precision measurements of the elevations of the top and the bottom
of a gravity hill because moving a theodolite off the road of the gravity hill being measured does not guarantee
that the theodolite will not be subject to the unexpected influence of other unknown nearby gravity hills in the
cluster as described in my second web page on precision scientific measurements on gravity hills at:

http://
www.shltrip.com/Need_For_Precision_Measurements.html

6. Is It Magnetic Force or Electric Force?

The following observations and tests on several gravity hills at several different places indicate that the
strange phenomenon on gravity hills is not due to magnetic force and not due to electric force.

(i) People poured water on several strange slopes and the water flew uphill on such strange slopes. Some
other people put plastic water bottle with water on such strange slopes and the plastic water bottle rolled
uphill on such strange slopes. They are shown on the movie clips in the following YouTube websites:

http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=e2hAiM2yjso&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFqsdpCB-O8&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jd0A4bnp-YU&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Qscv5ei29Q&NR=1

(ii) People have also observed rivers flowing uphill on some strange slopes as shown in the following YouTube
websites:

http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=9A028qv_A_0&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i3PUxcSBn64&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlQSiJWkQ4I

The Water in the ditches also seems to flow uphill on both sides of the strange slope at the Magnetic Hill near
Moncton, and at
other strange slopes in Ireland, China and other places,

(iii) Two plumb lines, with an iron ball on one line and a plastic ball on another line, are parallel to each other
on
a strange slope in China, and

(iv) Tests by using a compass on
a strange slope in China showed no unusual magnetic force.

7. How About Doing Some Tests and Measurements?

One of the important questions on the strange phenomenon on all these gravity hills all over the world is
whether the strange gravity phenomenon is due to illusion or not.

In the literature, there are various claims of proof of illusion for such strange gravity phenomenon. There were
several news articles and websites indicating that some investigators have used precision surveyor
instruments to do careful measurements of the relative heights (i.e., elevations) at suitable intervals (e.g., 5
meters) along the gravity hill. Their measurements indicate that the visually perceived lowest point of the
Strange Slope is “actually” higher than the visually perceived highest point on the slope. Being shocked and
stunned by such measurement results, they conclude that the strange phenomenon on the Strange Slope is all
due to the illusion of the visual perception.

However, when these measurements, tests and proofs are examined more carefully, it is found that these
existing proofs are invalid with serious defects as explained in details in the following.

7.1. Problems of Carpenter's Level and Traditional Land Survey Measurements on Gravity Hills

The key problem in using a carpenter's level or a typical land survey instruments for measurements on these
strange slopes of gravity hills is the use of plumb line and Spirit/Level Bubble as explained in the following:

7.1.1. Problems of Spirit/Level Bubble and Plumb Line on Gravity Hills

Precision measurements of angles in land survey method require the use of precision angle measurement
instrument known as theodolite. For precision measurements, the theodolite
must be (A) placed precisely and
vertically over a reference point to be measured. This is known as centering, and (B) its vertical axis aligned
with local gravity, known as leveling. The former is done using a plumb line or plumb bob, the latter using a
spirit bubble” or  “level bubble”. The plumb line or the spirit/level bubble or a long water hose depend on the
local gravity force to establish the local vertical direction and local horizontal plane as the key basic
references for various precision measurements. The required careful and elaborate procedure to achieve the
critical centering and leveling are demonstrated by an instructional video on the following YouTube website:

http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=c9U0xlmCzGI&feature=related


With such careful centering and leveling, the measured results from such theodolite are usually very accurate
at many "regular" locations with no strange gravity phenomenon.

However, at the very special location of a gravity hill, many people over hundreds of years have noticed
consistently the very strange gravity phenomenon of water flowing uphill, water bottles rolling uphill, vehicles in
neutral gear rolling uphill, barrels and bales of dry goods rolling mysteriously “uphill”, etc. Many kinds of
strange names such as Gravity hill, Anti-gravity Hill, Confusion Hill, Magnetic Hill, Electric Brae, Magic Hill,
Mystery Hill, Spook Hill, Strange Slope, etc. have been used to describe such “strange place”. Such long
history provides a strong indication that something is very strange on such gravity hills. The local gravity field
may be abnormal and may have a strong horizontal component from a strange unknown source and the
horizontal gravity force is strong enough to pull vehicles to roll uphill on the paved road.
About Author                                 Contact Author
Gravity Hills and Strange Slopes on Earth
Dark Matters on Parallel Universes
Dark Energy is Inter-Universe Coupling Gravity
Picture 5: The blue minivan on the left lane is rolling up the strange slope backward while three other vehicles
(2 white color and 1 red color) on the right lane are going down to the bottom of the strange slope to try the
experience of rolling up the strange slope.

Some people stop at the bottom of the strange slope in the middle of this section of the road and roll up the
slope backward like the blue minivan does in this picture. But some other people do not stop at the bottom,
but go further to the far end which is higher than the bottom, then turn their vehicles around, then come down
to the bottom in the middle of this section of road and stop there, so that they can roll up the hill forward (like
that in Pictures 2, 3 and 4) instead of backward.
Picture 6: Several vehicles and a motor cycle are waiting on the line for their turns to go down the slope to try
their experience on this strange slope. Notice that the road surface for the waiting line of vehicles is
reasonably level (i.e., not on a steep slope) and that the area for waiting line of vehicles is substantial in size.

There were quite a few visitors with their cars, vans, trucks, recreational vehicles, motorcycles, etc. waiting
on line to try this strange phenomenon at Magnetic Hill when I was there in July 2005.
Picture 7: Three more vehicles waiting on line for their turns to try the strange slope. At the top of the slope,
there are two orange colored posts and two or more instructors telling visitors on what to do when they drive
down to the bottom of the slope to experience the strange phenomenon of Magnetic Hill.
Picture 8:  More vehicles waiting on line for their turns.


1.1 First Set of Evidences Against Illusion Theory for Gravity Hills

Notice that in Pictures 7 and 8, we cannot see the bottom of the strange slope from the area of vehicle waiting
line at the top of the strange slope. We can see the far end of this section of road but cannot see the bottom
in the middle of this section of road. I was standing upright on the top of the strange slope in taking all these
Pictures 1 to 8 so that my camera had at least 5 feet of clearance from the ground surface. Even with such 5
feet of clearance at the area of waiting line of vehicles, my camera still cannot see the bottom of the strange
slope, but can see the far end of the road. This is a strong evidence that the bottom of the strange slope in
the middle of this section of road is indeed lower than the top of the strange slope and lower than the far end
such that we cannot see the bottom from this waiting line of vehicles on the top of the strange slope. This is
one of the reasons that I do not believe that the strange gravity phenomenon on such strange slopes is due to
"Illusion" as claimed by many people and by many articles on Internet.

Another reason that I do not believe in Illusion Theory comes from a gravity hill (known as Electric Brae) on a
coastal highway in Scotland and several other coastal gravity hills as described in the next Section 2 on this
web page.

The Illusion Theory claims that: (1) the bottom of such strange slope is higher than the top of the slope, (2)
those vehicles are rolling downhill because the Illusion Theory claims that the bottom is higher than the top on
such strange slope, and (3) all those vehicles that look like rolling "uphill" on such slope as shown on Pictures
2, 3, 4 and 5 are due to illusion in human perception. In other words, the "Illusion Theory" claims that all those
vehicles are rolling down hill even though they look like rolling up hill as shown on Pictures 2, 3, 4 and 5.

If the bottom of the slope were higher than the top of the slope as claimed by the "Illusion Theory", then we, at
my standing upright position on the top of the strange slope with at least 5 feet of clearance above ground
level, would be able to see the "higher" bottom from the area of waiting line of vehicles in Pictures 7 and 8.
However, the fact that on the waiting line in Pictures 7 and 8, we do see the far end but do not see the bottom
of the slope in the middle of this section of road is a strong evidence that (A) the bottom of the slope in the
middle is indeed lower than the top of the slope and lower than the far end as shown in Pictures 2, 3, 4 and 5
and (B) this strange gravity phenomenon is NOT due to illusion.  More evidences against "Illusion Theory"
including the problems in their supporting measurements are described in Sections 2, and 5 to 10 on this web
page.

A picture taken by other people from the bottom of the slope looking toward the top of the slope can be seen
at the following website:

http://
www.forensicgenealogy.info/images/mag_hill_macton_reverse.jpg

The story associated with this picture is on the following website:

http://
www.forensicgenealogy.info/contest_362_results.html

This picture shows that this camera at the bottom of the slope cannot see the large area for the waiting line of
vehicles at the top of the slope beyond the instructor and the orange color post. If the bottom of the slope
were higher than the top of the slope, as claimed by the Illusion Theory, this camera at the "higher" bottom
would be able to see the large area of waiting line of vehicles beyond the position of the instructors and the
orange post. The fact that this camera at the bottom cannot see the large area of waiting line of vehicles on
the top of slope is another evidence that the bottom of the slope is indeed lower than the top of the slope.  

Similarly, many other people have also taken movie clips when their cars in neutral gear were rolling up this
Magnetic Hill in Moncton  as shown on the following YouTube websites:

http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ml6E45x825M&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLgdZGbOclk

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zhr0owdDLqo&feature=related

In these three movie clips, notice that when their movie cameras in their cars are pointing to the top of the
slope (where the instructors and the area for the waiting line of vehicles are located), the videos show that
these cameras cannot see the large area for the waiting line of vehicles on the top of the slope. If the bottom
of the slope were higher than the top of the slope, as claimed by the Illusion Theory, these cameras in the
cars would be able to see the large area of waiting line of vehicles beyond the position of the instructors. The
fact that these cameras cannot see the large area of waiting line of vehicles on the top of the slope is another
evidence that these cars are rolling uphill and the bottom of the slope is indeed lower than the top of the slope.
 

Therefore, both the views in Pictures 7 and 8 from the area of the waiting line of vehicles on the top of the
slope and the views from the bottom of the slope consistently indicate that (a) the bottom of the slope is
indeed lower than the top of the slope and (b) these vehicles are indeed rolling up the hill against the known
law of gravity as a well known strange phenomenon.
Picture 3: The vehicle started to roll up hill from the bottom.
Picture 4: The vehicle continued rolling up hill.
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Figure 3 - Concept of Parallel Universes with Inter-Universe Coupling Gravity among our universe and many
other parallel universes surrounding our universe.

In this way, the matters of other parallel universes are exerting their inter-universe coupling gravity to pull
outward on all matters in our Universe A. In other words, the inter-universe coupling gravity from other
parallel Universes is causing accelerated expansion of our Universe A.

Therefore, from my viewpoint, the Dark Energy is just the plain old gravity, that is the inter-universe coupling
gravity

11.3. Dark Flow

There is no reason that the distribution of other parallel universes must be perfectly symmetrical with respect
to the center of our  Universe A.  Then the inter-universe coupling gravity from all those parallel universes on
our Universe A is not perfectly symmetrical. Therefore, the accelerated expansion of our Universe A is not
perfectly symmetrical, not perfectly uniform, and not perfectly homogeneous. This may be the reason for the
"Dark Flow" discovered in 2008 by Alexander “Sasha” Kashlinsky of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center.
Dark Flow represents the movement of hundreds of galaxy clusters at about two million miles per hour in the
direction of a patch of sky between the constellations Centaurus and Vela.

Since the inter-universe coupling gravity between Universe A and other parallel universes is not perfectly
symmetrical, the shapes of our Universe A and of other parallel universes may not be perfectly spherical
either.

12. Concluding Remark

The String Theory, M-Theory and Theory of Parallel Universe indicate that gravity can "leak" from one
universe into other parallel universes. Therefore, parallel universes are not totally independent of each other,
but are coupled to each other through such inter-universe coupling gravity. The accelerated expansion of our
universe is caused by such inter-universe coupling gravity from other parallel universes. The Dark Flow
detected in our universe is also caused by such inter-universe coupling gravity. The strange gravity
phenomenon on hundreds of known gravity hills and gravity mysteries on Oregon Vortex and other mystery
spots on earth surface are also caused by such inter-universe coupling gravity.

Since the source of this inter-universe coupling gravity is dark matters residing on other parallel universes, we
cannot see and cannot touch those dark matters. Therefore, the effects of this inter-universe coupling gravity
show up in our universe as very strange phenomena, namely: (12-1) accelerated expansion of our universe
by strange unknown dark energy, (12-2) Dark Flow of hundreds of galaxy clusters in certain direction, and
(12-3) strange gravity phenomenon and mysteries on hundreds of gravity hills, Oregon Vortex and other
mystery spots on earth surface.

It turns out that all these three major mysteries at the frontier of modern physics and astronomy are all
caused by the same plain old gravity - that is the inter-universe coupling gravity. It is amazing that all these
three major mysteries at the frontier of modern science can all be explained by the plain old gravity.

13. Technical Background of the Author of This Web Page

Dr. Sing H. Lin is a retired Telecommunication engineer and manager with technical expertise in the area of
radio/wireless communication technologies and systems. He received his Ph.D. Degree in Electrical
Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley, California, USA in 1969 and BSEE degree from
National Taiwan University in 1963. He joined Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, USA in 1969. He has 68
technical publications and presentations in various technical journals and conferences, 3 patents, and a
Chinese certificate of a copyright on a mapping table for Chinese Spelling Code.

He had been a member of the US Delegation to International Telecommunication Union (ITU) for many years
in developing the global standards and recommendations for radio/wireless communications systems
including the Third Generation (3G) mobile wireless communications systems and beyond. In 1998, this
international team of wireless technology experts, including Dr. Sing Lin, completed the development of ITU
standard for 3G mobile wireless communication system. This 3G wireless mobile system standard provides
the platform that spawned the rapidly growing smart phone industry with many useful applications attracting
huge number of users all over the world. The total global annual sales of smart phones is about 500 million
units in 2011 and is growing very fast. The smart phone industry is now moving forward into the international
4G system standard which is also known as LTE (Long Term Evolution).

Dr. Sing H. Lin and his colleagues in the old Bell Laboratories had conducted many years of experiments on
effects of multipath radio propagation and rain attenuation on the performance of terrestrial and earth-
satellite microwave communication radio links. Such experiments and huge amount of data were collected
from numerous microwave radio links in USA and in some foreign countries such as Saudi Arabia. Results
from such  experimental data, analyses and developed theories are important for engineering microwave
communication radio links to meet performance objectives. Some of these results were published in the
following technical papers:

S. H. Lin, H. J. Bergman and M. V. Pursley, "Rain Attenuation on Earth-Satellite Paths - Summary of 10-year
Experiments and Studies," The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 59, No. 2, February 1980, pp 183 to 228.

S. H. Lin, "Statistical Behavior of a Fading Signal," The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 50, No. 10,
December 1971, pp. 3211 - 3270.

S. H. Lin, "Statistical Behavior of Deep Fades of Diversity Signals," IEEE Transaction on Communications,
Vol. COM-20, No. 6, December 1972, pp. 1100 - 1107.

By using Statistical Theory of Extremes, Dr. Sing H. Lin has also developed a theory and a method to obtain
nationwide long term (25 to 50 years) distributions of rain rate at more than 200 locations in USA. Such
theory and method are published in the following technical papers:

S. H. Lin, "Statistical Behavior of Rain Attenuation", The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 52, No. 4, April
1973, pp. 557 - 581.

S. H. Lin, "Rain Rate Distributions and Extreme Value Statistics," The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 55,
No. 8, October 1976, pp. 1111 - 1124.

S. H. Lin, "More on Rain Rate Distributions and Extreme Value Statistics," The Bell System Technical
Journal, Vol. 57, No. 5, May-June 1978, pp. 1545 - 1568.

Note: The technical papers in Bell System Technical Journal (BSTJ) from 1922 to 1983 are available online in
the following BSTJ website:

http://
www3.alcatel-lucent.com/bstj/

A complete list of his 68 technical publications and presentations in various technical journals and
conferences and of his patents is in his web page at:

http://www.shltrip.com/Patent_and_Publication.html

When he was a Ph.D. student in the University of California at Berkeley, he did take and enjoyed the
graduate course on Radio Astronomy. As a radio engineer in Bell Laboratories, in New Jersey, USA, he
participated in a team project on radiometer measurements and experiments as related to satellite
communication technologies. He learned the Dickie radiometer technologies from a team of radio
astronomers, including Robert W. Wilson, in Bell laboratories at Crawford Hill in Holmdel, New Jersey.

His interest in astronomy continues from his student life through his professional engineering life and into his
retiree life. In his retiree sightseeing trips, he enjoyed touring the Very Large Array (VLA) site operated by
the National Radio Astronomy Observatory near Socorro, New Mexico and the National Solar Observatory
and Apache Point Observatory on Sacramento Peak in New Mexico, USA in February 2006. More
information on and a picture of Dr. Sing H. Lin are available at the following web page:

http://www.shltrip.com/aboutus.html

His e-mail address is: SINGHLIN@GMAIL.COM

He has retired from his professional Telecom engineer job and is living in New Jersey, USA.


Appendix A - Many Reports of Gravity Hills at many locations all over the world at the following
YouTube websites:

http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-kLZZLQEg8

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LawmLgSSRY

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UUSDMPmo56U&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M_o7JW1f7NQ

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U9_Q33sGB4U&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c23ayRI6cz4&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D7cV32S3s_0&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ByJ24XMvZk&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SR2X6zr2HE&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wF_fTnleS00&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QR_GPXunr1s&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eY8KC8ZHa70&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PV-xFVf0QHw&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IeyEZ9RZi7c&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y-Ex2K5KUJ8&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7xP09iuZh0&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQ5GC_i23ls&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GwnbLrwc734&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t-NXwaElIIM&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TrkG4IFG04U&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k76ik_y0PJ4&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mxTOiylFLB8&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-oNqEiIkZb8&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QCbqV2bXS5Q&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZHPmdO_f-wI&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XqJsGXbJruU&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4xKPCGtn_w&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fta_7O-Myms&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQRw7o-WBgg&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0vNV0zCJ_MM&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lkl5qhFaD3k&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XqJsGXbJruU&NR=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lIwRSpbisG8&feature=related

Appendix B - Some Chinese websites listed in the following indicate that similar Gravity Hills have
also been observed at several other locations in China.

http://www.qzwb.com/gb/content/2000-08/27/content_5895.htm

http://www.qzwb.com/gb/content/2002-02/22/content_414707.htm

http://www.china.org.cn/features/photos/liaoning/liaoningview/75.htm

http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/3/12/17/n431204.htm   

http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/2/2/22/n172201.htm

http://news.china.com/zh_cn/social/1007/20030915/11540459.html
The plumb line and the spirit/level bubble used in the land survey instruments on a gravity hill are affected and
tilted by such strong horizontal component of gravity force as illustrated on Figure 1 and Figure 2 above. Since
the horizontal component of gravity force is strong enough to pull vehicles to roll uphill, it is also strong enough
to pull the plumb line and the level bubble such that the local horizontal plane established by the theodolite is  
tilted and is not correct shown as the red dashed line in Figure 2. On Figure 2, as viewed from the Bottom of
the gravity hill, the Top of the gravity hill becomes below the tilted horizontal plane represented by the red
dashed line.

In other words, with the tiled red dashed plane taken as the (wrong) reference horizontal plane, the uphill slope
becomes a downhill slope on Figure 2.

Therefore, such land survey measurements indicate erroneously that the human perceived top is lower than the
bottom of the gravity hill based on its tilted horizontal plane. Such wrong measurement results are often used
as support for the illusion theory for gravity hills.

On special locations of gravity hills, the gravity may not be normal leading to such wrong measurement results.
I have not seen any reports of land survey measurements indicating that the surveyor(s) took special care to
check to see if the gravity on the gravity hill is normal or not before they performed the traditional land survey
measurements. Checking to see if the gravity is normal or not on a gravity hill is not simple and not easy as
described on my second web page at:

http://
www.shltrip.com/Need_For_Precision_Measurements.html

Since the surveyor(s) did not check to see if the gravity at the gravity hill is normal or not and blindly assumed
that the tilted Red Dashed Plane in Figure 2 established by the plumb line and the level bubble as the
reference horizontal plane in all the land survey measurements on the gravity hill, the results and the conclusion
from such "blind" land survey measurements or from simple carpenter's level to prove illusion theory can not be
trusted.

This potential deficiency of spirit/level bubble at such strange slopes has been noted by other people as shown
in the following paragraph:

"It would be impossible to prove or disprove the antigravity phenomenon using a spirit level as described. If the
antigravity effect can act on a motor car, it can probably also act on a few millilitres of fluid containing a
bubble, causing the bubble to float downhill instead of uphill. I'm surprised the Skeptical Inquirer fell for that
one." quoted from the following website:

http://www.newscientist.com/backpage.ns?id=lw118

Many people miss the serious problems of level bubble and plumb line that may negate the precision of such
land survey measurements on gravity hills. Therefore, many people fall into this trap of erroneously accepting
such use of plumb line or spirit/level bubble or carpenter's level or long water hose as a valid proof of illusion
theory for the strange gravity phenomenon on these gravity hills. Consequently, we see the word "illusion" all
over the place in many articles and websites when they refer to this strange gravity phenomenon on these
gravity hills.

The bottom line is that one cannot trust the measurement results based on a plumb line or a spirit/level bubble
or carpenter's level or long water hose on such gravity hills unless special independent measurements have
been done to check to see if the gravity on such gravity hills is normal or not.


7.2. Contradictory Results from GPS Measurements

In view of the problem of plumb line or spirit/level bubble or water hose on these strange slopes described in
Section 7.1, some people naturally will look for other methods to measure the elevations on these strange
slopes without having to depend on the spirit bubble to establish the local reference horizontal plane. One of
the possible candidates is the use of  GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver which should be less likely to
be influenced by the potential local strange force. It may be a better method for measurements of the
elevations on these strange slopes.

Two investigators have done two such sets of independent measurements by using GPS receiver on a strange
slope known as the Gravity Hill near New Paris in Bedford County in Pennsylvania, USA.

Results of investigator (A) is in the following website (A):

http://www.research.umbc.edu/~frizzell/pabedcogravhill.html

Results of investigator (B) is in the following two websites (B):

http://
www.groupsrv.com/science/about7161.html

http://www.groupsrv.com/science/post-31649.html

However, the results from these two independent measurements using GPS are totally opposite and
contradictory.

Results of Investigator (A) indicate that the lowest point by visual perception on this section of road at Gravity
Hill is higher than the highest point by visual perception and conclude that the strange phenomenon at this
Gravity Hill is due to illusion.

But the independent second set of measurements by GPS from investigator (B) indicates that the lowest point
and the highest point by visual perceptions on this strange slope at Gravity Hill are indeed correct as confirmed
by his GPS measurements. The conclusion from investigator (B) is that this strange phenomenon at the Gravity
Hill is NOT an illusion.

The key reason for such contradictory results from GPS measurements is due to the large and time varying
error in elevation measurements by using a single consumer-grade cheap GPS receiver as described in the
next Section.


7.3. Accuracy of Consumer-Grade Single GPS Receiver for Elevation Measurements

According to the website of a major supplier, Garmin, of GPS receivers at:

http://www.garmin.com/aboutGPS/

The accuracy of the basic, older version of single consumer-grade GPS receiver is about 15 meters (50 feet)
on average which is not good enough for our purpose of measurements on these strange slopes because the
difference between the high point and the low point may be only 10 to 15 feet on these strange slopes.

The use of newer Differential GPS (DGPS) single receiver that includes correction signal from land-based
broadcasting stations may achieve an accuracy of 3 to 5 meters (10 to 16 feet).

Furthermore, the newer GPS single receiver that includes the correction signal from the WAAS (Wide Area
Augmentation System) coming from geostationary satellite broadcast, may improve the accuracy to better
than 3 meters (10 feet) on average.

However, these accuracy numbers are referring to the navigation position on the horizontal plane. It says that
at least three GPS satellites must be visible to the GPS receiver in order to determine the horizontal position,
but at least four GPS satellites must be visible to the GPS receiver in order to determine the elevation. This
implies that the elevation measurements are more vulnerable to errors. Information on some other websites on
GPS  indicate that the accuracy in elevation measurements may be worse than those on horizontal plane by
about a factor of 3. This makes the accuracy of elevation measurements by single GPS receiver on such
strange slopes highly questionable.

These GPS accuracy numbers are usually given as "on average" which means that the measurement error is
time varying depending on several factors listed near the bottom of the Garmin website given above. For
example, one of such factors is called Geometrical Dilution of Precision that can degrade the precision in
certain cases. This happens when several of the orbiting GPS satellites seen from the GPS receiver are in a
similar (angular) position relative to the receiver. It makes the precision much worse than if the seen satellites
have equal angular spacing over the sky.

The 24 GPS satellites are moving rapidly on their orbits and their relative positions, as seen from a GPS
receiver, vary rapidly because these satellites are not on high orbits of synchronous satellites. Such rapid
variations in their relative positions viewed from a GPS receiver result in rapidly time varying measurement
errors. I did a test personally by holding a GPS receiver at a fixed location and just watch the measured
elevation displayed on the GPS receiver screen. The displayed elevation is not constant but is time varying
every few seconds and may vary by as much as 100 feet even though the GPS receiver is not moving at all.
All such variations are due entirely to the time varying measurement error.

Furthermore, I put two consumer-grade GPS receivers, of identical model from the same manufacturers, side
by side with no space between the touching sides of the two receivers, the measured elevations displayed on
the two identical GPS receivers are different!

The bottom line is that the accuracy of using a single consumer-grade GPS receiver is not good enough for
accurate determination on which end of the slope of a gravity hill is higher.

A more accurate comparator measurement method using multiple GPS receivers is described in Section 4.1. in
my web page at:

http://
www.shltrip.com/Need_For_Precision_Measurements.html


7.4. Topographic Map

Some people have suggested looking at the local topographic map near the area of a strange slope to
determine which ends of the strange slope is really higher. It seems to me that there are several possible
methods used to generate those topographic maps such as (1) old fashion land survey instruments that
depend on a spirit/level bubble to establish local reference horizontal plane for measurements, (2) airborne
laser or radar ranging technique, (3) satellite based laser or radar ranging technique.

If the local topographic map near a strange slope was generated by method (1) using a spirit/level bubble,
then such map cannot be trusted to resolve the illusion issue because of the problem of spirit/level bubble
described in Section 7.1.

7.5. Status of Scientific Proof of Illusion

The investigator (B) appeared to be using the regular single GPS navigation receiver based on the information
on the websites (B) listed in Section 7.2. Furthermore, in the information in website (A) listed in Section 7.2,
there is no mention of multiple GPS receivers, no mention of survey grade GPS receiver(s), no mention of
distance between the two or more GPS receivers, no mention of error-combating measurement techniques
described in Section 8.1. Therefore, I have to assume that investigator (A) was also using a single GPS
receiver for that set of measurements.

With the contradictory results from investigators (A) and (B) subjecting to the serious accuracy limitations
described in Section 7.3. for single GPS receivers, we cannot trust the measurement results from such
measurements using a single GPS receiver.

With the problem of plumb line and spirit/level bubble described in Section 7.1. and the measurement errors of
single GPS receiver described in Section 7.3, the existing measurement results, as far as I know, cannot be
trusted as valid proof of illusion for the strange phenomenon on these strange slopes.

Even though many articles and websites refer to this strange phenomenon at various magnetic hills, gravity
hills, antigravity hills and strange slopes as an illusion, as far as I know as of today (April 15, 2014), there are
still no credible measurements done to prove that the strange phenomenon on these strange slopes is due
entirely to illusion.

8. Need for Precision Scientific Measurements on Gravity Hills and Mystery Spots

On the other hand, in last few years, I have collected four sets of important evidences against the illusion
theory and a set of scientific methods for precision measurements that can be done on gravity hills and
mystery spots as described in my web page at:

http://
www.shltrip.com/Need_For_Precision_Measurements.html

The ideas for these scientific methods originate from my interactions and e-mail correspondence with several
scientists and engineers in last few years.

I believe that the results of such future scientific precision measurements will show more clearly that the
strange gravity phenomena and gravity mysteries on those known gravity hills and known mystery spots are
real, are caused by abnormal gravity in those special locations and are NOT an illusion in human perception.
Such measured results may also represent an important milestone in human exploration of the nature. The
unknown source of such strange gravity force may be dark matter in parallel universes that is still not well
understood by our human scientific knowledge as described on my web page at:

http://
www.shltrip.com/Oregon-Vortex.html

Such breakthrough in the cutting edge of science of dark side of cosmos may open up many new windows of
opportunities at hundreds of known gravity hills and Mystery Spots for scientists to conduct more in depth and
close up investigations of the characteristics of the dark side of cosmos.


9. Mounting Preliminary Evidences for Multiverse

Several aspects at the cutting edge of science are relevant and important to the understanding of the strange
gravity phenomena on gravity hills and mystery spots. They include String Theory, M-Theory and Multiverse or
Parallel Universe and they are briefly described in this Section.

One of the current cutting-edge fields of research by many scientists all over the world is multiverse or parallel
universes and the related String Theory/M-Theory. It is driven by several surprising and uncomfortable
discoveries from astronomy scale and from sub-atomic scale of quantum physics (i.e., from very large scale
and from very small scale). For almost a hundred years science has been haunted by a dark secret: that there
might be mysterious hidden worlds beyond our human senses. Recent advances in investigations and studies
of these strange discoveries are all pointing consistently to the possible existence of parallel universes
(multiverse) and to the development of String Theory, M-Theory and Big Bang Inflation Theory.

9.1. The mounting preliminary evidences for multiverse are:

9.1.A Observation from BICEP Experiment in South Pole
The announcement on March 18, 2014 of the results of the 3-year observation at South Pole of the BICEP
(Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) experiment provides a strong validation of the big-
bang Inflation Theory. According to Professor Alan Guth in MIT and Professor Andrei Linde in Stanford
University, the two main contributors to the inflation theory, inflation, once started, is eternal in the sense that it
created not only our universe, the rest of the cosmos will continue blowing up, spinning off other bubbles
endlessly, a concept known as the Multiverse with many parallel universes. In other words, our universe is one
of many inflationary universes in a vast Multiverse. Some descriptions of BICEP experiment and its important
discovery are in the following websites:

<http://
www.scientificamerican.com/article/gravity-waves-cmb-b-mode-polarization/?&WT.
mc_id=SA_WR_20140319>

<http://
darkmatterdarkenergy.com/2014/03/20/bicep2-apparently-detects-quantum-nature-of-gravity-and-
supports-inflationary-big-bang/>

9.1.B Signatures of Collision of our universe with other universes
In studying CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background), a team of scientists have identified disc shaped signatures
on CMB as preliminary evidences of collisions of our universe with other universes in the past. Some
descriptions of this discovery of collision signatures are in the following websites:

http://
www.messagetoeagle.com/evidencepararelluniverse.php#.U01U8lVdV8G

http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2010/12/22/observing-the-multiverse-guest-post/

9.1.C 1998 Discovery of Accelerated Expansion of Our Universe
A brief description of the surprising 1998 discovery accelerated expansion of our universe is in Section 11.1 of
this web page. According to my theory, such accelerated expansion of our universe is due to inter-universe
coupling gravity from other parallel universes surrounding our universe as explained in Section 11 on this web
page. In other words, Dark Energy is inter-universe coupling gravity from other parallel universes surrounding
our universe.

9.1.D Discovery of Huge Dark Flow in 2008 by Alexander “Sasha” Kashlinsky of NASA’s Goddard
Space Flight Center.
"Dark Flow" was discovered in 2008 by Alexander “Sasha” Kashlinsky of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight
Center. Dark Flow represents the movement of hundreds of galaxy clusters at about two million miles per hour
in the direction of a patch of sky between the constellations Centaurus and Vela. According to my theory, this
dark flow is due to the inter-universe coupling gravity from the asymmetrical distribution of parallel universes
surrounding our universe as explained in Section 11.

9.1.E Gravity Mysteries at several known Mystery Spots on earth surface
According to my theory, such gravity mysteries at these known Mystery Spots is due to the abnormal gravity
originating from dark matters that exist on parallel universes as explained on this web page and the following
web page:

http://
shltrip.com/Oregon-Vortex.html   

9.1.F Strange gravity phenomenon on hundreds of known gravity hills on earth surface
According to my theory, such strange gravity phenomenon on hundreds of known gravity hills on earth surface
is due to abnormal gravity originating from dark matters that exist on parallel universes as explained in this web
page and the web page listed in Section 9.1E.

Admitted that these evidences are preliminary and controversial at this early stage because our science has
not been doing much work on multiverse yet. But it is a very exciting, challenging and fertile ground for many
scientists to explore in the future. Human scientific research is now venturing out beyond our familiar universe
and into much more challenging and exciting parallel universes or mulltiverse.

9.2. Some Key Characteristics of Parallel Universes

The following team of leading scientists and professors in physics and astronomy in prestigious universities
jointly provides detailed in-depth explanations of this cutting-edge field of research on parallel universes, String-
Theory and M-Theory in a series of documentary TV programs which are often shown on educational TV
channels such as Science Channel or History Channel:

NIMA ARKANI-HAMED, Professor of Physics, Harvard University,

MICHAEL DUFF, Professor of Physics,  University of Michigan, and Imperial College (London),

ALEX FILIPPENKO, Professor of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley

ALAN GUTH, Professor of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

MICHIO KAKU, Professor of Theoretical Physics at the City University of New York

BURT OVRUT, Professor of Physics, University of Pennsylvania,

LISA RANDALL, Professor of Physics, Harvard University,

PAUL STEINHARDT, Professor of Physics, Princeton University,

NEIL TUROK, Professor of Mathematical Physics, Cambridge University

The transcript of this series of video programs on Parallel Universes is also available at:

http://
www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2001/parallelunitrans.shtml

These science documentary TV programs are very helpful and educational to many people, including me.

According to the preliminary theory of parallel universes, there are many, infinitely many, universes that exist in
parallel to our known universe, we are not alone! Furthermore, there are several different kinds of parallel
universes. The Level-3 type of parallel universes can co-exist with our known universe in the same space and
at the same time. But we cannot see and cannot touch those things (dark matters) in those Level-3 parallel
universes, except through gravitational force. In the concept of String Theory/M-Theory, those dark matters
exist in the higher dimensions such that we cannot see them and cannot touch them except through
gravitational force.

10. My Evolving Dark Matter Theory on Gravity Hills and Mystery Spots at the Cutting Edge of Science

Due to my scientific curiosity, I often enjoy taking a side tour from my sightseeing trip to visit various Mystery
Spots and Gravity Hills at many places. I toured Mystery Spot in Santa Cruz, California 21 years ago in 1993
as described on my web page at:

http://www.shltrip.com/Oregon-Vortex.html

The strange experience of gravity mysteries in that Mystery Spot planted the seed in my mind to start thinking
and doing research on such gravity mysteries since 1993. Then I toured Oregon Vortex in Oregon in 2004, and
the Magnetic Hill in eastern Canada in 2005. I have also toured a cluster of two nearby gravity hills along
Gravity Hill Road near New Paris in south central Pennsylvania, USA, a cluster of two nearby gravity hills along
Pleasant Valley Road near the junction of Pleasant Valley Road and Bear Tavern Road in Hopewell Township
in south west New Jersey, USA. I visited the Mystery Hill in North Carolina in January 2014.

I have also been reading many reports of many other gravity hills at many other locations all over the world
and several other known mystery spots. With such background and information, I have been thinking and
searching for 21 years for a possible scientific explanation for the strange gravity phenomena on those
hundreds of known gravity hills and mystery spots on earth surface. Through this web page and E-Mail, I have
also been interacting and discussing with many friends and strangers all over the world on these strange
gravity phenomena. I have also been searching and reading some articles and books in some aspects of
science that are relevant to this topic. Over last 21 years, these several factors are jointly and gradually
shaping my evolving chain of thoughts and my theory on gravity hills and mystery spots as described in the
following:


10.1. Strange Gravity Phenomena and Mysteries:
Very strange (gravity) phenomena and gravity mysteries have been observed and reported on hundreds of
gravity hills and several known mystery spots on earth surface for many years. They are long standing puzzles.

10.2. Four sets of independent evidences against illusion theory:
Many people have proposed the Illusion Theory and many people have accepted the Illusion Theory for these
strange (gravity) phenomena and mysteries. But I do not believe that the Illusion Theory is valid as explained in
Sections 1 to 8 on this web page. I presented four sets of independent evidences against Illusion Theory in
Sections 1.1, 2.3, 3 and 4.  These four sets of evidences indicate that these well known strange gravity
phenomena and gravity mysteries may be real and are not due to illusion in human perception.

10.3. Key Challenge in Developing Theory for Gravity Hills and Mystery Spots:
For many years, many people, including many scientists and engineers, have visited and experienced such
strange (gravity) phenomenon on these gravity hills. If the possible scientific explanation for such strange
phenomenon exists, it probably is not simple, not easy and not obvious. Otherwise, one or more scientists or
engineers, who have visited such gravity hills, would have found it and provided such scientific explanation for
such strange (gravity) phenomenon. For example, John Lister, a Scottish physicist, geologist and mining
engineer, spent more than 30 years performing more than 14,000 experiments and measurements on such
strange gravity phenomena at Oregon Vortex in southern Oregon, USA. In spite of such great effort, John
Lister was so frustrated, said "The world is not ready for this," burned most of his notes and measurement
data and left only a small pamphlet of very brief and cryptic summary of his work in 1959 before he passed
away. This gives us a hint on what to expect if one tries to find a scientific explanation for gravity hills and
Mystery Spots. One may need to prepare mentally to deal with complexity, unknowns, unchartered territories,
and severe challenges in such scientific exploration, especially as related to abnormal gravity.

From my viewpoint, the key barrier for reaching a satisfactory theory is the concept of parallel universes or
multiverse. Without accepting the concept of parallel universes, it is very difficult to explain all these gravity
mysteries observed on these known Mystery Spots and hundreds of known gravity hills and very difficult to
explain the mystery of accelerated expansion of our universe and the huge dark flow of many galaxy clusters in
certain direction as observed in astronomy.

10.4. Known characteristics of gravity hills:
(10.4A) The abnormal gravity on these gravity hills are strong enough to pull vehicles, water, water bottles,
basket ball, etc. to roll up hill on the paved slopes of these gravity hills, (10.4B) The typical inclination angle of
the slope on many gravity hills ranges from 1 to 3 degrees. (However, there is a very brief report of a gravity
hill with a steep slope of 15 degrees in a desert region of Yugur County in northeastern part in Gansu province
in northwest China. But I cannot find pictures, or video or other more detailed information on this very special
steep gravity hill)), (10.4C) The lengths of most gravity hills are about 500 feet or shorter. (However, a reader
of my web page on gravity hills sent me a message indicating that there is a long gravity hill in Wadi Baiza,
near Madina Munawara in Saudi Arabia with length of about 8 Km and a vehicle in neutral transmission gear
can gain speed up to 100 Km/h on such unusually long gravity hill). (10.4D) The strange phenomenon of gravity
hill may show up for about 500 feet on a road, then disappear and then show up again about 0.3 miles or
about 2 miles away on the same road. In other words, gravity hills may show up in a cluster of more than one
gravity hill in an area of a few miles.

10.5. Possible source of abnormal gravity:
My preliminary estimation indicates that the size of the source of such abnormal gravity is very compact in the
order of only a few feet or less and the required mass density is extremely high that must be at least 1,000
times of that of average material on earth. The key considerations and logic for such estimation come from my
analysis of information on Oregon Vortex and several other similar Mystery Spots as described on my web
page at:

http://www.shltrip.com/Oregon-Vortex.html

10.6. Our Familiar Regular Matter Cannot Produce Such Strange Phenomena:
Since the mass densities of our familiar heavy materials (such as platinum, plutonium, lead, gold, tungsten,
uranium, etc.) on earth surface are only about 4 times or less of that of the average material on earth. This is
far short of the required mass density at least 1,000 times greater than that of average material on earth. We,  
therefore, conclude that our familiar regular matters do not have such necessary extreme mass density and
are NOT able to produce the observed strange gravity phenomena and mysteries with characteristics
described in Section 10.4.

10.7. Dark Matter as the Source for Such abnormal Gravity:
This means the source of the strange gravity force on the gravity hills, Oregon Vortex and other similar
Mystery Spots is NOT from our familiar regular matter. I, therefore, reach the following important conclusions:
(10.7A) The source of strange gravity phenomenon on gravity hills, Oregon Vortex and other similar Mystery
Spots is from some very strange unknown matter that is very different from our familiar regular matter, (10.7B)
such strange material must be on the ground or slightly above ground to be able to produce the necessary
horizontal gravity to pull vehicle, water or water bottle to roll uphill. (10.7C) But, at all these hundreds of gravity
hills, Oregon Vortex, and other similar Mystery Spots, and for so many years, nobody has ever seen or
touched or detected such strange matters with such extremely high mass density, (10.7D) This means that we
cannot see and cannot touch that strange unknown matter in those special small areas of a gravity hills, or
Oregon Vortex or other similar Mystery Spots.

Therefore, I call the unknown strange matter with such extreme high mass density in these gravity hills, Oregon
Vortex or Mystery Spots as some kind of dark matter.

Notice that the dark matters in my theory are deduced from the strange gravity phenomena on hundreds of
gravity hills and several known mystery spots on earth surface. The dark matters in my theory are NOT
deduced from astronomical observations of galactic rotation curve problem or the dynamic of galaxies in
galaxy cluster. The dark matters in my theory are independent of the controversy on galactic rotation curve
problem in astronomical observations.

10.8. Inter-Universe Coupling Gravity:
According to the String Theory, most forces are based on open strings that are attached to a brane (i.e., a
universe) such that most forces are confined within their own universe. But gravity is different and is based on
a closed-loop string that is not attached to a given brane. The close-loop string based gravity can float from
one brane to another brane such that gravity can "leak" from one universe into other parallel universes.

10.9. Dark Matters on Parallel Universes as the source for Abnormal Gravity
Since dark matter interacts with our familiar regular matter only through gravity, but not any other forces such
that we cannot see and cannot touch dark matter. Furthermore, our earth surface does not have such extreme
mass density matter(s). Such characteristics seem to provide a strong hint that those strange  dark matters
are on other parallel universes with very different physics to be able to produce such extreme mass density.
More supporting information leading to the thinking that dark matters are on parallel universes are in section 6
on my web page at:

http://www.shltrip.com/Oregon-Vortex.html

10.10. Opportunities to investigate Parallel Universe and Dark Matters
If such preliminary explanation for the strange gravity phenomenon on those gravity hills and gravity mysteries
on Oregon Vortex and other mysteries turns out to be roughly in the correct direction, then those hundreds of
gravity hills on earth surface may become "gold mines" for future precision, rigorous and intensive
measurements, tests, investigations and studies of dark matter and parallel universes. For example, a
systematic study of (1) the locations of all those hundreds of known gravity hills, Oregon Vortex and similar
mystery spots on the earth surface, (2) the size and the shape of the small area of influence of those gravity
hills and (3) clustering of multiple nearby gravity hills may provide some hints on the distribution and the
structure of the cold dark matters that have interwoven silently with our earth. Furthermore, careful and precise
measurements of the distance dependence and variation of direction of this gravity vector in and near the
gravity hills, Oregon Vortex and other mystery spots may provide more accurate determination on the compact
physical size and mass density of those dark matter(s) and as the source for those abnormal gravity.

Another suggested set of scientific methods for precision measurements on gravity hills and mystery spots are
described on my web page at:

http://www.shltrip.com/Need_For_Precision_Measurements.html

10.11. Gravity Coupling Among Parallel Universes  
Since gravity can leak from one universe into other parallel universes, it means that the parallel universes are
not totally independent of each other, but are coupled through gravity. I, therefore, propose that (10.11A) the
inter-universe coupling gravity is the dark energy that is causing accelerated expansion of our universe as
explained in Section 11, (10.11B) the inter-universe coupling gravity is causing the Dark Flow in our universe as
explained in Section 11,  and  (10,11C) the inter-universe coupling gravity is causing the strange gravity
phenomenon and mysteries on hundreds of gravity hills, Oregon Vortex and some other similar Mystery Spots
on earth surface.

The effects of this inter-universe coupling gravity show up in our universe as very strange gravity phenomena
and gravity mysteries because their sources (in other parallel universes) cannot be seen and cannot be
touched from our universe.

10.12. Dark Matters in My Theory
Notice that the dark matters in my theory are deduced from the strange gravity phenomena on hundreds of
gravity hills and several known mystery spots on earth surface. The dark matters in my theory are NOT
deduced from astronomical observations of galactic rotation curve problem or the dynamic of galaxies in
galaxy cluster. The dark matters in my theory are independent of the controversy on galactic rotation curve
problem in astronomy.

11. Dark Energy is Inter-Universe Coupling Gravity

11.1. Introduction on Issue of Dark Energy

In about 1929, Edwin Hubble and several other scientists discovered that the spectral lines in the light received
from distance galaxies are all shifted toward red light end of the spectrum. Edwin Hubble further discovered
that the amount of red-shift is proportional to the distance of galaxy from us. A red-shift can occur when the
light source is moving away from an observer, similar to the Doppler shift that changes the perceived
frequency of sound waves. The observed red-shift implies that: (11.1A) Galaxies are running away from us,
(11.1B) The receding speed of a galaxy is proportional to its distance from us, and (11.1C) Universe is not
static, but is expanding.

Since all matters have gravity pulling on each other, such gravity pull is expected to slow down the expansion
of universe. In 1998, two independent teams of scientists did two independent astronomical measurements to
try to measure the rate of slowing down of expanding universe (i.e. to measure the ultimate fate of our
universe). These two teams are the Supernova Cosmology Project at the Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory and the High-z Supernova Search Team.

However, these two teams of scientists and the whole world were all surprised in 1998 to find that the
expansion of universe is NOT slowing down, but is accelerating. These two independent teams of scientists
were scared and thought that they might have some errors in their measurements. But their careful checks
found no errors in their two independent sets of measurements. All scientists and astronomers have been in a
state of collective bewilderment since this surprising discovery in 1998.  

The key question is what is causing such acceleration of expansion of universe? For the time being, scientists
have to postulate a “Dark Energy” that is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends
to increase the rate of expansion of the universe.

On the other hand, from hundreds of gravity hills, Oregon Vortex and other similar mystery spots on earth
surface, I found that these strange gravity phenomenon and gravity mysteries are due to inter-universe
coupling gravity originating from dark matters that exist on parallel universe as explained in Section 10. The
strange gravity phenomenon and mysteries on those gravity hills, Oregon Vortex and mystery spots are
"strange" and mysterious because we cannot see and cannot touch the source of that inter-universe coupling
gravity. It is the plain old gravity, but we cannot see its source and cannot touch its source. Therefore, such
gravity phenomena appear to be very strange and mysterious.

With such breakthrough on gravity hills, Oregon Vortex and other mystery spots, I find that the strange
phenomenon of Dark Energy is also the plain old gravity, that is the inter-universe coupling gravity as explained
in the next section. But we cannot see its source and cannot touch its source (Dark Matters). Therefore, the
accelerated expansion of universe becomes very strange and its driving energy is given the name of Dark
Energy.

11.2. Dark Energy is Inter-Universe Coupling Gravity

With the concept of parallel universes, our universe is NOT the only universe that is going through the big bang
expansion. There are other parallel universes that are out there surrounding our universe. For discussion
purpose, let our universe be the Universe A and other parallel universes be Universe B, universe C, universe D,
universe E,  etc. as illustrated in the following Figure 3.
Figure 1 for the Top and the Bottom of an uphill slope.
Figure 2 - On a gravity hill, plumb line and liquid bubble yield (wrong) tilted horizontal plane due to influence of
abnormal gravity.